BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS TRAINING MODULE

This training module is provided to eliminate or minimize occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens (BBP) in accordance with the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations 1910.1030 and 56 Ill. Adm. Code 350. This module will provide BBP information including epidemiology, modes of transmission, methods to reduce exposures and other pertinent information as outlined in the Exposure Control Plan.

NDSEC is required to perform an exposure determination concerning which employees may incur occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials during their job duties. The following Job Classifications have been identified to have occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens; these include all staff assigned to NDSEC or district programs:

Teachers Adapted Physical Education Teachers
Vocational Coodinators Job Coaches
Speech Pathologists Van Drivers
Occupational Therapists School Nurses
Physical Therapists Program Coordinators
Social Workers Program Assistants
All other NDSEC hired employees

To receive Credit for completing this module you need to read the information and take the test. After you press the submit button the test is sent electronically to Human Resources.

 

 

Bloodborne Pathogens

Bloodborne pathogens (BBPs) are microorganisms in human blood capable of causing infection or desiease.  The most significant BBPs are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HBV).

HIV Facts
HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system and destroys T cells, a type of white blood cell. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the final stage of HIV infection. Having AIDS means the virus has weakened the immune system and the body has difficulty fighting infection. HIV originated in chimpanzees in West Africa where it most likely jumped to humans who were hunting them. It slowly spread to other areas in the world.

  HIV cannot live very long outside the body and therefore, is not transmitted through daily activities such as shaking hands or from toilet seats, drinking fountains or doorknobs.  You also, cannot become infected from mosquitoes. The only way to know whether someone is infected is to be tested for HIV. Many people with HIV do not have symptoms for tem years or more.

In 2006 the Centers for Desease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that about one million people are living with HIV or AIDS in United States. About 25% of individuals living with HIV do not know they have it, which puts others at risk. Beginning in 1996 there has been a significant secrease in AIDS cases, after new antiretroviral drugs became available.

 

HBV Facts

HBV is a serious desease affecting the liver that can cause:

Acute illness: Symptoms include fatigue, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, jaundice (yellow skin or eyes), and pain in muscles, joints and stomach.

Chronic illness: This can be very serious leading to liver damage (cirrhosis), liver cancer and death.

HBV is 50-100 times more infectious then HIV. It also can survive at least 7 days outside the body and continue to cause infection. Not everyone who experiences an acute infection develops chronic infection. Infants and children are more likely to develop chronic infection while approximately 95% of adults completely recover from an acute infection.

The rate of HBV infection in the United States has declined by about 80% since 1991 after the implementation of routine vaccination. In 2006 an estimated 46,000 individuals were newly infected with HBV. About 1.25 million people in the United States have chronic HBV infection. Each year about 3,000 to 5,000 people die from cirrhosis or liver cancer caused by HBV.

 

HCV Facts

HCV is the most common chronic bloodborne infection and is the leading cause of liver transplants in the United States. Symptoms of HCV infection occur in only 20-30% of new infected individuals and include fatigue, abdominal pain, poor appetite and jaundice (yellow skin/eyes). Chronic infection develops in 75-85% of individuals with HCV infection and can cause cirrhosis and liver failure. In 2006 there was an estimated 19,000 newly diagnosed cases of HCV infection.

 

Bloodborne Pathogen Transmission

Body fluids that should be considered infections for BBPs and capable of transmitting disease:
Blood
Semen
Vaginal secretions
Breast milk
Body fluids containing visible blood

Body fluids that are not known to carry infectious BBPs:
Sweat
Tears
Saliva
Urine
Feces

BBPs are most commonly transmitted through:
Sexual contact
Needle sharing
Blood transfusions
Areas of unbroken skin (open sores, cuts, abrasions, acne or damaged skin such as blisters)
Mucous membranes (eyes, nose and mouth)
Mother to baby at birth

DID YOU KNOW...
the number one type of exposure to BBP in schools is a bite. If you are in doubt as to whether you had an exposure, be sure to ask a school nurse or your physician.

The Infection Chain
The chain of infection is a model which describes the process of infection.  Each link in the chain must be present for an infection to occur.

Infectious Agent – These are hazardous biological materials that present a risk or potential risk to health. Examples include BBPs, Influenza, head lice, strep-throat, pink eye, etc.

Reservoir – This is where the disease lives inside your body. For example, the reservoir for pertussis is inside the mouth and throat.

Portal of Exit – This is how the disease is spread from the infected person. For example, pertussis is spread through the air in droplets produced during sneezing or coughing.

Mode of Transmission – This is how the disease moves from one person to another. For example, pertussis is spread when a person infected with pertussis coughs or sneezes.

Portal of Entry – This is how a person becomes infected with a disease.  For example, pertussis can be inhaled or ingested by a person.

Susceptible Host – This depends on the individual’s reaction to the disease.  For example, even though someone was infected with pertussis, immunity to the disease can last up to 10 years from their last infection or immunization.

One break in the chain can prevent infectious diseases from spreading. The easiest way to break the infection chain is by HAND WASHING.  Properly washing your hands after working with students, after using the restroom and before and after eating can decrease your chances of infection.

Hand Washing Procedure

 


 

UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS

Universal precautions are practices and procedures that provide the first line of defense in the prevention of contact with blood and other body fluids.  They are the best protection against BBPs.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 
PPE includes vinyl gloves, goggles, heavy-duty utility gloves, CPR resuscitator shields, antiseptic wipes, convenience bags and sharps containers.  NDSEC provides PPE to employees at no cost.  The purpose of PPE is to restrict blood or other potentially infectious fluids from contact with skin or mucous membranes.  They should always be used when there is potential exposure to a BBP.  

Disposable Vinyl Gloves
Gloves are needed for contact with any potential BBP such as when administering first aid, cleaning spills, and handling sharp objects such as needles.  The proper size gloves should fit hands snugly.  When possible, wash hands before putting on gloves.

Procedure for Removing Gloves:
Place finger of one gloved hand on the wrist of the other gloved hand.  Peel the glove from the wrist to the fingers so that the glove is inside out.

Goggles
BBPs can be transmitted through the thin membranes of the eyes so it is important to protect them.  Anytime there is a risk of splashing or vaporization of contaminated fluids, goggles or other eye protection should be used to protect the eyes.  Splashing can occur when cleaning up a spill, during laboratory procedures, or while providing first aid or medical assistance.

Good Housekeeping
Infectious substances can be anywhere including countertops, desks, toilets, sinks, and trash containers. Clean work areas reduce the potential for exposure to BBPs.

Spill Clean Up Procedure


 

Personal Hygiene
Activities such as eating, drinking, applying cosmetics or lip balm and handling contact lens are prohibited in areas where there is a reasonable likelihood of exposure to BBPs.  Also, food and drink should not be in close proximity to blood or other body fluids.

Employees are required to physically cover all exposed skin lesions, abrasions or cuts to protect themselves and others from potential BBP exposure.

Sharps Handling Procedure
Sharps include needles, broken glass or any object that may puncture the skin.

 

NDSEC EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN
The Exposure Control Plan (ECP) was developed to reduce the risk of exposure to BBPs and comply with OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Standard, Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations 1910.1030 and 56 Ill. Adm. Code 350.  Copies of the ECP are available on the public network, Human Resources Department, and the NDSEC classrooms.

Post Exposure Information
If an employee is exposed to a BBP, NDSEC is responsible for evaluating the incident.  It’s important that the employee’s supervisor be notified immediately to ensure the most comprehensive and protective treatment.  NDSEC is responsible for providing a confidential medical evaluation and follow-up after an exposure incident.  The employee will be referred to the NDSEC affiliated clinic or the employee’s own health care professional.

BBP Exposure Procedure

 

HBV Immunization Series

NDSEC offers the HBV immunization series at not cost to all emplayees who HBV immunization series is performed by licenzed healthcare professional and is available within 10 days of the initial hire date. Exceptions include an employee who has received the series previously, had antibody testing showing immunity or for other medical reasons. Hepatitis B vaccine is usually given as a series of 3 or 4 shots. This vacine series gives long-term protection from HBV infection, possibly lifelong. An employee can choose to sign a waiver and decline the HBV immunization series. If an employee initially declines and then request the immunizations at a later date, they will be provided by NDSEC at no cost.

 

References:

The Centers for Disease Control (2007).  A glance at the HIV/AIDS epidemic.  Retrieved
April 23, 2007 from www.cdc.gov/hiv.

The Centers for Disease Control (2007).  Basic information.  Retrieved April 23, 2007
from www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/basic/print/index.htm.

The Centers for Disease Control (2005).  Hepatitis B fact sheet.  Retrieved April 12, 2007
from www.cdc.gov/hepatitis.

The Centers for Disease Control (2005).  Hepatitis C fact sheet.  Retrieved April 12, 2007
from www.cdc.gov/hepatitis.

U. S. Department of Labor.  Regulations (Standards – 29 CFR) Bloodborne pathogens –
1910.1030.  Retrieved April 12, 2007 from www.osha.gov.